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Maritime transport or sea transport is a term that refers to the movement of passengers, goods and کشتی by ship, boat and other vessels floating on water. The practice of maritime trade has been practiced by humans for centuries and has a very long history of air and rail transport. The main use of this model of transportation has been to explore new lands, relocate troops for war, and trade. Today, vessels can move over oceans, seas, lakes, canals and rivers, all of which involve water transport.
Types of sea transport
In a general classification, the types of movement by vessels are divided into three groups. Deep sea transport, short sea or short sea transport and inland transport include three categories of water transport types.
Deep sea transport is the sea transport that is done by very large ships and is done over long distances. The route of such transport is usually intercontinental, during which ships cross the oceans. This type of transportation is mostly for maritime trade and transportation of certain goods. Commodities such as fertilizer, oil, cement, iron ore, etc.
Short sea or sea transport, as its name implies, is used to move goods over short distances, and the ships used for this type of goods transport are smaller than the deep transport ships and the volume of their goods is more limited. These ships generally do not enter the oceans and only sail along the coast and other waters. In addition, some short-haul vessels also operate on inland routes. This type of maritime trade is also called coastal transportation.
Domestic transport is the third category of maritime transport in which the movement and activity of vessels takes place only in the internal canals and waterways of each country. These waterways can include lakes, rivers, and canals. Compared to maritime transport, transports that take place in domestic transport take place over short distances, in shallow water and in small vessels, which are generally designed and constructed for traffic on these routes. Major products transported through this route also include chemical products, mineral products and petroleum products.
Marine bill of lading
Companies that provide water and sea transportation services, in exchange for the goods received from the customer and agreed to deliver it to the destination, deliver a document signed by the company or its representative in which the document on how to pay for shipping and specifications Full times listed.
From a legal point of view, each maritime bill of lading is a maritime contract concluded between the employer and the shipping company, and represents the deed of ownership of the goods, the receipt of the goods and the contract of carriage.
In maritime trade, bills of lading are prepared and issued in 4 copies. A copy is issued to the consignor, a copy to the consignee, a copy to the commander of the carrier, and a copy of the bill of lading to the legal representative or owner of the ship.
Types of maritime transport bill of lading
There are many types of bill of lading in maritime transport, which we will name here, and then we will try to give a brief and useful explanation for each of them.
Direct bill of lading, global bill of lading, bill of lading for regular maritime services, charter bill of lading, Fiata combined cargo bill of lading, restricted bill of lading, third party bill of lading, closed bill of lading, negotiable and transferable bill of lading, onboard bill of lading, anodek bill of lading, White-backed or canceled bill of lading, transferable national bill of lading, ship officer temporary or bill of lading, stale bill of lading, group bill of lading, liner or regular route bill of lading, container bill of lading, shipper bill of lading, shipped billboard bill of lading, clean bill of lading, transhipment bill of lading, sea bill of lading Loaded goods and sea freight bill of lading are among the freight bills issued in maritime transport.